# Beatmap

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**Beatmap** is a juggling notation system invented by Luke Burrage.

A pattern is written in beatmap as a sequence of "beats", which are evenly spaced points in time. Everything a hand does with an object that is designated in the notation, such as throwing it, occurs on a beat. After you reach the end of the sequence of beats, the pattern repeats from the beginning. Each beat in a pattern is notated in a way similar to synchronous siteswap notation:

- A throw is represented by a number corresponding to the number of beats before that object will be notated again.
- All the throws that occur on the same beat are written inside parentheses.
- A comma is used to separate throws made by different hands on the same beat.
- A letter can be written after a number to indicate which hand the object is thrown to. A number without a letter means that the object will be caught by the same hand that throws it, and a number with an "x" after it is a throw that crosses to the juggler's other hand.
- An asterisk at the end of a pattern means that each time the sequence is repeated, the roles of the right and left hands are switched.

Unlike siteswap, beatmap notation uses this same format for all kinds of patterns.

The actions of every hand are always notated on every beat, even in patterns where only one hand throws at a time. On a beat where a certain hand isn't throwing, that hand is doing either a 0 (meaning that hand is empty) or a 1 (meaning that hand is holding an object until the next beat).

In synch siteswap, pairs of throws are considered to be separated by an "empty beat" that isn't written in the notation, which makes the meanings of the numbers consistent with asynch siteswap, and also makes all the numbers in synch patterns even. In beatmap, there are no empty beats unless the notation specifies that there are empty beats. As a result, a throw in the beatmap notation for a synch two-handed pattern has half the value it would have if the pattern was written in siteswap. A hold is a 1 instead of a 2, a zip is a 1x instead of a 2x, and a two in one hand throw is a 2 instead of a 4.

In one-handed patterns, each beat is written as a number inside parentheses, and no commas or letters are necessary. In multi-handed patterns, multiple commas are used inside a pair of parentheses to separate all the throws that are made by different hands on one beat. A vertical bar can be used instead of a comma to separate the hands of different jugglers. Since there are more than two hands, more letters are required to specify the destination of each throw. A capital letter is assigned to each hand: (A,B,C,D...). Writing one of these letters after a number indicates that the throw is directed to the hand associated with that letter. An "x" can still be used in passing patterns to mean that the object will be caught by the same juggler, but with the opposite hand. For 2-person passing patterns, you can use "p" (straight pass) and "px" (diagonal pass) to indicate passed throws, instead of using the hand-specific letters.

No additional brackets are used for multiplex throws. To specify that two or more objects are thrown with the same hand on the same beat, you just write the numbers with no comma or parentheses between them.

You can notate patterns involving objects being thrown by or bouncing off of various things such as the juggler's feet or head or the floor, by treating these things as "hands" in the notation. Other variables, such as the position of a hand or other manipulator or the position of a juggler can also be treated similarly to hands in beatmap notation, which makes it possible to describe tricks like Mills mess and 360s. Complex patterns like this may require a separate "key" to define what each field ("hand") represents. When a field is used for a position instead of a hand, numbers in that field indicate hands or jugglers that are in or leaving a certain position, instead of objects that are in or leaving a certain hand. Vertical bars can be used to separate different types of fields (hands, other manipulators, hand positions, body positions), and to divide fields into pairs, which are treated the same as pairs of hands - each time a pattern with an asterisk repeats, each pair of fields is switched.

A "~" can be written before a number as a simple way to indicate that on that beat the arms are crossed, and the hand doing that throw is on top, without having to use "hand position" fields.

### Examples of beatmap patternsEdit

**One hand**

- An empty hand: (0)
- Holding 1 ball in a hand: (1)
- Throwing a ball with one hand: (2)(0)
- Holding 2 balls in one hand: (11)
- Throwing 1 ball with one hand while holding another ball in the same hand: (21)(1)
- Juggling 2 balls in one hand: (2)
- One hand throwing and catching 2 balls at the same time: (22)(0)
- One hand throwing 2 balls at the same time and catching them separately: (32)(0)(1)
- One hand throwing 2 balls separately and catching them at the same time: (31)(2)(0)
- 3 balls in one hand with stacked multiplex throws: (22)(2)
- 3 balls in one hand with cut multiplex throws: (32)(1)
- 3 balls in one hand, non-multiplex: (3)
- 4 balls in one hand with stacks: (22)

**Two hands**

- Holding a ball in one hand while the other hand is empty: (1,0)
- Zipping a ball back and forth between two hands: (1x,0)(0,1x) or (1x,0)*
- Tossing a ball back and forth between two hands: (2x,0)(0,0)*
- Holding a ball in each hand: (1,1)
- Switching 2 balls between two hands by throwing them at the same time: (1x,1x)
- Zipping 2 balls between two hands one at a time: (1x1,0)(1x,1)*
- Throwing a ball from each hand at the same time: (2,2)(0,0)
- Throwing a ball with each hand, one at a time: (2,0)*
- 2 ball shower: (2x,1)(0,1x)
- 2 ball snake: (2x,0)(2x,0)*
- 2 ball stacks: (2x2x,0)(0,0)*
- 2 ball splits: (2x2,0)(0,0)(1x,1)*
- 2 ball squeezes: (2x,2)(0,0)(0,1x1)*
- 2 ball slices: (2x1x,0)(0,1)*
- Holding a ball in each hand while passing another ball from hand to hand: (1x1,1)*
- 3 ball splits: (2x2,1)(0,1)*
- 3 ball squeezes: (2x1,2)(1,0)*
- 3 ball slices: (21x,0)*
- 3 ball cuts: (32,1)(0,1)(1x,1)*
- 3 ball cascade: (2x,1)*
- 3 ball cascade with less dwell time: (3x,0)*
- 3 ball shower: (2x,1x)
- 3 ball box: (2,1x)*
- 4 ball synch fountain: (2,2)
- 4 ball synch fountain with less dwell time: (4,4)(0,0)
- 4 ball synch fountain with more dwell time: (3,3)(1,1)
- 4 ball asynch fountain: (3,1)*
- 4 ball asynch fountain with less dwell time: (4,0)*
- 4 ball wimpy pattern: (2x,2x)
- 4 ball stacks: (22,0)*
- 4 ball splits: (2x2,1)(2x,1)*
- 4 ball slices: (2x1x,1)*
- 4 ball shower: (3x,1x)
- 5 ball cascade: (4x,1)*
- 5 ball splits: (2x2,1)*
- 5 ball squeezes: (21,2x)*
- 5 ball siteswap (6x,4)*: (3x,2)*
- 6 ball synch fountain: (3,3)
- 6 ball asynch fountain: (5,1)*

**Three hands**

- 1 ball in 3 hands: (1B,0,0)(0,1C,0)(0,0,1A) or (1B,0|0)(0,1C|0)(0,0|1A) or (1x,0|0)(0,1C|0)(0,0|1A)
- 2 balls in 3 hands: (1C,1,0)(0,1A,1)(1,0,1B)
- 3 hands each holding a ball: (1,1,1)
- Passing 3 balls in 3 hands: (1B,1C,1A)
- 4 balls in 3 hands: (2B,1,1)(1,2C,1)(1,1,2A)
- 5 balls in 3 hands: (3C,1,1)(1,3A,1)(1,1,3B)
- 3 hands each juggling 2 balls: (2,2,2)
- Passing 6 balls in 3 hands: (2B,2C,2A)
- 6 ball rotating wimpy thingy: (2B,2A,2)(2,2C,2B)(2C,2,2A)

**Four hands**

Key: (person 1's right hand , person 1's left hand , person 2's right hand , person 2's left hand)

- Two people each juggling 3 balls, with the right hands synchronized and the left hands synchronized: (2B,1,2D,1)(1,2A,1,2C) or (2x,1|2x,1)*
- Two people each juggling 3 balls, with each person's right hand synchronized with the other's left hand: (2x,1|1,2x)*
- 6 ball asynch ultimates: (2p,1|2p,1)*
- 6 ball asynch diagonal ultimates: (2px,1|1,2px)*
- 6 ball synch ultimates: (2p,2p|1,1)(1,1|2p,2p)
- 6 ball synch diagonal ultimates: (2px,2px|1,1)(1,1|2px,2px)
- 6 ball 2-count: (2p,1|2p,1)(1,2x|1,2x)
- 5 ball 2-count domino pattern: (2p,1|1,1)(1,1|1,2x)(1,1|2p,1)(1,2x|1,1)
- 5 ball 1-count domino pattern: (2px,1|1,1)(1,1|2p,1)(1,2px|1,1)(1,1|1,2p)
- 7 ball 2-count: (3p,1|1,2x)(1,2x|3p,1)

**More than four hands**

- 5-handed domino pattern: (2B,1,1,1,1)(1,2C,1,1,1)(1,1,2D,1,1)(1,1,1,2E,1)(1,1,1,1,2A)
- 3-person 12 ball 1-count: (2F,2C|2B,2E|2D,2A)
- 4-person 12 ball box 2-count: (2F,1|2H,1|2B,1|2,1D)(1,2x|1,2x|1,2x|1,2x)

**Other manipulators**

- 3 balls with a head bounce (with one bounce for every two throws): key: (left hand , right hand | head); pattern: (2x,1|2)(1,2x|0)
- 3 ball bounce: key: (L left hand , R right hand | F floor); pattern: (1F,1|1L)(1,1F|1R) or (2F,1|1L)(1,1|0)(1,2F|1R)(1,1|0) or (1F,1|0)(1,1|2R)(1,1F|0)(1,1|2L) or (2F,1|0)(1,1|0)(1,1|2R)(1,1|0)(1,2F|0)(1,1|0)(1,1|2L)(1,1|0) - Using an asterisk to shorten the notation, these can be written as (1F,1|1L)* or (2F,1|1L)(1,1|0)* or (1F,1|0)(1,1|2R)* or (2F,1|0)(1,1|0)(1,1|2R)(1,1|0)*

The 3 ball bounce patterns notated above could also be used for a 3 ball pattern with each throw bouncing off the head, elbow, knee, etc., or caught and thrown by a foot or another person's hand, if one of these manipulators was assigned to the third field in the key.

**Hand and body positions**

- Passing 1 ball from hand to hand in a circle around the body: key: (left hand , right hand | left hand in front , left hand in back | right hand in front , right hand in back); pattern: (1x,0|1,0|1,0)(0,1|1x,0|1x,0)*
- Backcross, reverse backcross, BBB: key: (left hand , right hand | left hand in front , left hand in back | right hand in front , right hand in back); pattern: (2x,1|0,1|1,0)(1,2x|0,1|1,0)(2x,1|0,1x|1x,0)*
- Mills mess: key: (left hand , right hand | L left hand crossed over right , R right hand crossed over left); pattern: (2x,1|0,0)(1,2x|1,0)(2x,1|2x,0)* or, without having to use the key: (2x,1)(~1,2x)(~2x,1)*
- Continuous 3 ball 1 up 360s (in both directions): key: (left hand , right hand | F facing "forward" , B facing "backward" | L facing "left" , R facing "right"); pattern: (5x,1|1L,0|0,0)(1,1|0,0|1B,0)(1,1|0,1R|0,0)(1,1|0,0|0,1F)*
- 6 ball synch ultimates with a 180 on every third beat to transition between front to front, front to back, back to back, back to front: key: (person 1's right hand , person 1's left hand | person 2's right hand , person 2's left hand | person 1 facing partner , person 1 facing away from partner | person 2 facing partner , person 2 facing away from partner); pattern: (2p,2p|1,1|1,0|1,0)(1,1|2p,2p|1,0|1,0)(2p,2p|1,1|1,0|1x,0)(1,1|2p,2p|1,0|0,1)(2p,2p|1,1|1,0|0,1)(1,1|2p,2p|1x,0|0,1)*